Tag: social

The Future of Content: Social

This post is part of The Future of Digital Content series, which discusses six traits I believe will be at the heart what content will look like in the coming years. These traits form a roadmap that lies at the heart of my research and experiments. The traits also work together, mixing and meshing, to paint a picture of how our future selves may read, watch, learn, and listen.

Read the rest of the series.

This may seem obvious to most people, after all Facebook and Twitter and all the rest have basically taken over the world. Of course our content will be promoted on social media. Of course authors will use twitter. Of course readers will review books online.

Obviously content will be social.

But is that all? What could social really mean?

Beyond content that is shared, tweeted, digged, forked, thrown, liked, hated and reviewed, content will be integrated into life. The content we love will be a hub of our social lives, almost like the centers of tiny universes. You see, social is about a lot more than sharing, posting, and sending. It’s about trust, exploration, and human nature.

Narrative Identity

On the research part of my site, I talk a lot about the concept of “Narrative Identity“. In a quick review, here’s how the idea plays out. We each tell stories about ourselves, to ourselves. I may tell the story of a dashing man with an awesome wife who is an avid reader, innovator, storyteller, and researcher. He likes Star Trek, vintage video games, and cats. I have an entire history, and entire story built up of me. My wife’s story is different: football, thrillers, technology, running, and creative art. These elements, these attributes, form our personal identity narrative.

Without realize it, we try to tell this story to others through our speech, actions, clothing, and all manner of “performances.” My performative identity looks like Star Trek quotes, video game t-shirts, and jokes about cats. My wife wears running gear, colorful things she makes, and talks like a geek. We let people know who we are by the things we do, say, and wear. Others can figure out what we are trying to say because of shared cultural resources. T-shirts with Atari symbols are hints to others who know the symbol that “hey, that guy must be into classic games.”

I have written a lot on the topic, but a good place to start is by exploring Anime Fans.

In any case, it is the “shared cultural resources” that we are interested in. These resources are often content that people interact with. They build friendships around, and define themselves through, this content.

Virtual and Real Life

So, content is already social, even if we didn’t think of it that way. But, technology is allowing us to make content really social in cool ways. Virtual sociality allows people to tweet about their stories, ask questions about that new article, find others who are into Advanced Basket Weaving, or whatever floats our boat. We can connect with people around content, using this cultural resource to share ideas, laughs, and tears.

Non-Virtual Sociality brings these things into the real world. Every time you talk with a co-worker about the new Star Wars movie (I originally wrote this as Star Wars VII premiered), you are being social around content.

Social doesn’t just mean social media, it means “integrated into life and others.”

How Will Content Be Social?

Onto the fun stuff! What could social content look like?

Shared

Successful content in the future won’t just hope people tweet, but will be actively sharable. A campaign strategy, quotes and quips, images, and evocative topics will drive people to share with their virtual world. Even more important is a two-way discussion. People like to engage with each other and the content creators.

Curated

Reviews, bumps, boosts, dislikes, and favorites — all will be vital as the internet continues to change the way we consume content. Readers want to know what their friends, trusted experts, and even total stranger have to say about content.

Reader to Reader

Readers (or audiences) want to connect with other readers around content. Many times, an interest in a particular piece of content means shared interests in other areas. Any content that provides people with a way to be social beyond just the content itself will have a serious leg up.

Author and Reader

More than just “behind the scenes,” this means that the content creator(s) are part of the community targeted by the content. They live where the readers live (even if not geographically). When readers can be social with the author, magic happens.

Reader and Characters

This is my favorite. The idea that readers can interact with fictional characters is exciting. And, this doesn’t have to stay in the realm of fiction. Interacting with historical figures, experts in whatever field, and “guides” through a certain topic can bring content to an entirely new level.

And More Than We Can Imagine

This is just the start. The future is going to be awesome.

That wraps up five out of the six traits of “The Future of Content.”

  1. Mulit-access – We want our content delivered in many different ways.
  2. Multi-modal – We want content that includes several forms of communication (video, text, sound, etc)
  3. Interactive – We want to take control of our destiny (or content). It should respond to us. Personalized.
  4. Collaborative – Working together with readers and other creators to build something more than we could ourselves.
  5. Social – In real live and in cyberspace, social between authors, characters, and readers.

Next is the last up on the list, Immersive and Expansive.

Series: The Future of Content

I am a researcher, storyteller, and technologist. Nowhere does that all come together more than in the exploration of how content is evolving. I research how people interact with content and education. I tell stories that are mixed-media and interactive. I build tools and apps that help authors and geeks work together to make awesome content experiences.

the lines are blurring between different kinds of content. Books are becoming websites. Music is meshing with film. Websites and apps are taking over.

Not only is content presentation changing, but the content itself is evolving. Stories are interactive. Articles include videos. Everything is online and part of a conversation between reader and maker.

My research and experiments are about pushing these trends into new places. Those involved in the revolution want to erase the lines that divide presentations (books, movies, websites) so that the content itself gets the show it deserves.

This series explores what the future of digital content might look like. How will books and websites evolve together? Where to games fit in? How will we read, watch, learn, relax, and engage with all the stuff we love in 5, 10, or 20 years?

I focus six traits of content in the future. These traits are my roadmap in most of my research, stories, and experiments. I would like to share them with you and get feedback on how you think content will evolve.

1. Multi-Access

You want your content your way. And you want to access your content in multiple ways.

2. Mixed Media and Multimodal

Content will not just be one thing. A story will alternate between pictures, text, and audio. Articles will include videos. And they will engage more than just one or two senses.

3. Interactive

Bonus features and behind-the-scenes videos are interactive, but what about letting the reader actually change the story as it goes. Or movies where the audience talks with the characters. Oh, and personalized, too.

4. Collaborative

Maker and Audience are distinctions that are starting to fade. We can all work together to build content that is something unlike any one person could have planned.

5. Social

Yes, content will be shared, tweeted, digged, forked, thrown, liked, hated, reviewed, and even more. Content will be integrated into life.

6. Immersive and Expansive

Stories have universes, and we want to explore more than just the small part we see in a video or read in a book. Immersive means that we will be able to surround ourselves and explore content on our own terms. Expansive means that content will link together with other content.

Stick with me as I explore what each of these mean and we discuss how to push digital content forward into the future.

Narrative Identity and Anime: Questions, Definitions, and Directions

This is part of a series that draws on ethnographic fieldwork with anime fans. The series creates a framework for exploring the relationship between narrative, performance, and identity. I explore a theory of narrative identity in which individuals incorporate elements from stories into their lives. I document how anime fans use anime-specific narrative resources such as archetypes, icons, and language to shape their personal identity narratives and perform those identities to both anime fans and non-anime fans.

Check out the rest of the series.


Stories are part of humanity, and have been ever since, and probably before, humankind took to speech. John Niles (Niles 2010) even went as far as to call humankind Homo Narrans, “storytelling man.” But let’s take that though a little further. To what extend do people use narrative to build their personal identities?

I first posit that the “narrative” as a “sense-making” structure that gives the “bones” allowed for people to “create and give meaning to our social reality (Hydén 1997:50).” Further, I suggest that narratives can be effectively and intentionally used to teach, to shape, and to guide behavior.

In a general sense, this is building off of work by Joseph Campbell (2008) and Carl Jung (1981), who had complimentary notions of archetypes as described in Christopher Vogler”™s book The Writer”™s Journey (2007) where mythic narrative elements (archetypes and journeys) act as guides for personal and social behavior. BronisÅ‚aw Malinowski also discussed the idea of a social charter (1971) where myths act as guides or a sort of playbook for behavior.

In more recent years, Charlotte Linde, an anthropologist, theorizes about the use of narrative as a sense making structure and story as a resource for identity management during her ethnography of an American Insurance Company (2003; 2000). The definition of “narrative” will be discussed in detail later, but for now we will define story as a presentation of events, whether real or fictitious, involving three primary elements: plotting, character, and setting (Morrell 2006:51). Linde details how incoming employees use stories from training materials and social settings to mold their own identity and guide their behavior in the workplace.

James Wertsch, an anthropologist from Washington University in St. Louis, carries this further by postulating that narratives are the primary sense-making structure, and are carried collectively by groups as part of a narrative schema inside a social circle”™s collective memory (2008; 2000). Indeed, the study of illness narrative inside medical anthropology suggests that narratives can be used to, among other things: 1) to reconstruct one”™s life in line with a greater narrative, 2) as a form of strategic interaction in order to assert or project one’s identity, and 3) to transform illness from an individual into a collective phenomenon.

So, it can be asserted that narratives are instrumental in creating, shaping, and projecting (or performing) identity.

Narrative is the central sense-making structure that allows human beings to arrange, categorize and present symbolic ideas. Hydén (1997:50) said, it has only been recently that “social scientists began to consider narratives as one of the ways in which we create and give meaning to our social reality. To earlier generations of social scientists, the narrative was merely one of many forms of representation.” Therefore, narrative provides the schema or roadmap for symbolic ideas to be connected and interpreted. Narrative is built in the same way story is: with character, plot and setting.

Identity, according to Joel Charon is “the name we all call ourselves” and also “the name we announce to others that tells them who we are.” (2009:84) Identities are positional or relational. They are “perceived social locations of the individual where one has situated [themselves] in relation to others,”¦[and] the name one tries to communicate with others” (Stone 2011:93).

So our working definition of identity is the socially constructed, socially maintained, and socially transformed meanings a person attributes to himself or herself (Berger 2011; Burke 1980).

To further clarify definitions, I will call the internal “identity” the personal identity narrative, here meaning the story we tell ourselves, about ourselves. The external “identity” in the paragraph above, I shall refer to as the performative identity, meaning the “me” we attempt to show others.

These definitions come together in the theory of narrative identity which we described earlier as the interplay between narratives and social identity construction in which individuals incorporate elements from narratives (fictionalized, social, and others) into their personal identity narrative and attempt to project this identity narrative by way of a performative identity.

The triad of narrative identity is an analytical framework that is used to analyze narrative identity by describing the connectedness between the shaping and projecting of narrative identity using narrative resources.

Narrative resources are narrative elements that provide symbolic points of reference, context, and content for fashioning identity and for performing identity.

These three aspects work in concert together: personal identity narratives, performative identities, and narrative resources. This works in a procedural way:

  1. Narrative resources exist “out there” and are shared by both audience and performer. They do not have the exact same set, and both interpret these symbols differently.
  2. The actor uses these shared resources to cobble together a personal identity narrative. That is “Who do I say I am?”
  3. That personal identity feeds into the performative identity: Who do I want others to know I am?
  4. The performance is the observable interaction projected by the actor.
  5. The audience relies on the shared narrative resources for audience interpretation.
  6. This creates the perceived self, or perception of the actor. This is who the audience thinks the actor is.
  7. The audience provides feedback, both intentionally and unintentionally.
  8. That feedback influences the performance, which influences the performative identity, which can ultimately influence the personal identity narrative.

Consider this simple example: Jerry is a football fan. His personal identity narrative is, therefore, informed by narrative resources that may include sports narratives, sports jargon and personal experiences. Jerry also performs this identity in order to situate himself as an athlete among his circle of friends. In order to communicate this, he again draws on narrative resources. In this case, those resources may be a brand of clothing that carries symbolic weight and that the group understands to point towards athletes. He may also adopt (enact) certain gestures and language that have been made popular by celebrity athletes. The audience (individuals in his circle of friends) sees these performance features and associates Jerry with athletics, therefore perceiving him as an athlete.

Going forward, I will attempt to walk a three-sided line. First and foremost, I will strive to enable anime fans to share their own voices through their own interviews, interpretations, and performances.

The second line is an attempt to create an analytical framework for investigating the theory of narrative identity. This framework will help us draw conclusions about the form and substance of narrative identity in social contexts. This is a test, and it may be that the framework is insufficient or plain faulty.

The third line is to fit this work in with the larger question of stories for education, identity management, and transformation. I will discuss some applied approaches and further directions for research of this type.

The next post in this series is a brief introduction to anime.

Stay tuned!

(Seven) Principles of Transmedia Storytelling (from Henry Jenkins)

Henry Jenkins is one of the leading researchers studying transmedia, fanfiction, and media consumption. In graduate school, I read lots of his books and he is quoted in my thesis. Here, he details seven core principles to telling mixed-media, interactive stories (transmedia in his words). This article is pretty technical and long, but really great. I’ve pulled out the seven with a quote, just to wet your appetite.

Read the rest.


  1. Spreadability vs. Drillability – “the capacity of the public to engage actively in the circulation of media content through social networks and in the process expand its economic value and cultural worth”
  2. Continuity vs. Multiplicity – Is the story linear from point a to b or is it fragmented?
  3. Immersion vs. Extractability – “These two concepts refer to the perceived relationship between the transmedia fiction and our everyday experiences.”
  4. Worldbuilding – The internal consistency of the characters, plot, and setting
  5. Seriality – Lots of smaller stories combined together to form a larger narrative.
  6. Subjectivity – The story outside the story, such as fanfiction, twitter wars, and cosplay.
  7. Performance – The reader performs the story in life.

From the Article:

I first introduced my concept of transmedia storytelling in my Technology Review column in 2003 and elaborated upon it through the “Searching for the Oragami Unicorn: The Matrix and Transmedia Storytelling” chapter in Convergence Culture. For me, the origami unicorn has remained emblematic of the core principles shaping my understanding of transmedia storytelling, a kind of patron saint for what has emerged as increasing passionate and motivated community of artists, storytellers, brands, game designers, and critics/scholars, for whom transmedia has emerged as a driving cause in their creative and intellectual lives. We all have somewhat different definitions of transmedia storytelling and indeed, we don”™t even agree on the same term ““ with Frank Rose talking about “Deep Media” and Christy Dena talking about “Cross-media.”

As Frank has put it, same elephant, different blind men. We are all groping to grasp a significant shift in the underlying logic of commercial entertainment, one which has both commercial and aesthetic potentials we are still trying to understand, one which has to do with the interplay between different media systems and delivery platforms (and of course different media audiences and modes of engagement.)


I will devote more time to applying some of these principles and reviewing the core concepts in later posts.

Read the entire article.

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